Year 2017, Volume 14 , Issue 1, Pages 35 - 60 2017-01-01

Bir Söylem Belirleyicisi Olarak Ondan Sonranın Etkileşimsel Anlatılardaki Anlatıcı ve Dinleyici Odaklı İşlevleri
The Teller/Receiver-Oriented Functions of Ondan Sonra As A Discourse Marker in Conversational Narratives

The Teller/Receiver-Oriented Functions of Ondan Sonra As A Discourse Marker in Conversational Narratives

Emel KÖKPINAR KAYA [1]


Günlük konuşmalar içinde sıkça karşılaşılan söylem belirleyicileri (discourse markers) konuşma içinde çeşitli işlevsel roller yüklenirler. Söylem belirleyicilerinin yoğun bir şekilde kullanıldığı günlük konuşma birimlerinden biri de etkileşimsel anlatılardır. Etkileşimsel anlatılar, anlatıcı(lar) ve dinleyici(ler) tarafından gerçekleştirilen etkileşimsel üretimlerdir ve ayrıca geçmiş yaşantıda deneyimlenen olayların günlük konuşmalar esnasında sıralı olarak anlatılmaları ile ortaya çıkan metinsel yansımalarıdır. Bu olaysal sıra içindeki öyküleştirme süresince, gerek anlatıcı(lar) gerek dinleyici(ler) farklı amaçlar ile söylem belirleyicilerine başvurmaktadırlar. Bu çalışma bir söylem belirleyicisi olarak ondan sonranın konuşma içinde gerçekleşen etkileşimsel anlatılardaki işlevlerini göstermeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu çerçevede, çalışma yöntembilimsel olarak Konuşma Çözümlemesi (Jefferson, 1978; Sacks ve diğ., 1974) ve Anlatı Çözümlemesi (Labov ve Waletzky, 1967; Labov, 1972, 1997) alanlarından katkı almakta ve bu iki alan arayüzünde yürütülen çözümleme ondan sonranın etkileşimsel öykülemelerdeki anlatı yapısı, konuşma düzeni ve kişilerarası etkileşim içindeki işlevleri üzerine odaklanmaktadır. Çalışmanın verisi, Türkçe anadili ve ölçünlü dil konuşucularının günlük aile içi konuşmalarından toplanmış 100 basit ve 12 karmaşık etkileşimsel anlatıyı kapsayan 11 farklı ses kayıdından oluşmaktadır. Çalışmanın sonucunda, ondan sonranın, Özbek (1998a) tarafından belirlenen ‘olayların sıralanması işlevini yürüten devamlılık belirleyicisi’ işlevine ek olarak, etkileşimsel anlatılarda anlatıcı ve dinleyici odaklı olmak üzere çeşitli işlevler yüklendiği gözlemlenmiştir. Anlatıcı odaklı işlevler, anlatı yapısı için olayları sıralamak, bağımlı anlatıların önceki anlatı ile ilişkilendirilmesini sağlamak, ve anlatının Karmaşık Olaylar Dizisi ve Çözüm birimlerinin başladığına işaret etmek; konuşma düzeni için konuşma sırasını almak ve başlatmak, ve sırayı tutmak; kişilerarası etkileşim için ise dinleyicilerin ilgisini belirli bir noktaya çekmek şeklinde belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, dinleyicilerin etkileşimsel öykülemeler sırasında, sıra alıp başlatma ve anlatıcıya anlatıya olan ilgilerini göstermek amacıyla ondan sonrayı kullandıkları bulgulanmıştır.

Discourse markers that are largely used in everyday talk carry out various functions in conversations. One of the conversational genres in which discourse markers are highly used is conversational narrative. Conversational narratives are the interactional productions of (the) teller(s) and listener(s), and also they are the textual reflections of the events that are experienced in past time and told in a sequence in the time of storytelling. In this stoytelling which comprises of a sequence of events, both tellers and listeners use discourse markers for different purposes. This study aims to demonstrate the functions of ondan sonra as a discourse marker in Turkish conversational narratives. To this end, this study grounds on Conversation Analysis (Jefferson, 1978; Sacks et al., 1974) and Narrative Analysis (Labov and Waletzky, 1967; Labov 1972, 1997). The analysis which is carried out in the interface of these two study fields focuses on the narrative, conversational and interpersonal functions of ondan sonra in conversational storytelling. The data of the study includes 100 single and 12 complex conversational narratives gathered from 11 recordings of natural conversations in family gatherings whose participants are native speakers of standard Turkish. The findings show that ondan sonra has various teller- and receiver-oriented functions in addition to the function of ‘continuity marker used in order to sequence the events’ as Özbek (1998a) suggested. The teller-oriented functions for narrative structure are sequencing the events in an temporal order, connecting the bound narratives to the first one, initiating the category of Complicating Action and initiating the category of Resolution. For conversational organisation, the teller-oriented functions are taking the turn and holding the floor, and for interpersonal interaction the only teller-oriented function is attracting the attention of the receivers to a specific point. In addition to them, the analysis shows that receivers use ondan sonra in order to initiate a turn and show their interest to the storytelling in conversational narratives. 

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Subjects Social
Published Date 2017
Journal Section Makaleler
Authors

Author: Emel KÖKPINAR KAYA
Institution: Hacettepe University
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date : January 1, 2017

APA KÖKPINAR KAYA, E . (2017). Bir Söylem Belirleyicisi Olarak Ondan Sonranın Etkileşimsel Anlatılardaki Anlatıcı ve Dinleyici Odaklı İşlevleri. Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi , 14 (1) , 35-60 . Retrieved from http://ded.mersindilbilim.info/en/issue/28505/304131