Araştırma Makalesi
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Politeness in Young (Between 4.3 - 5.7) Children's Speech in Turkish

Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 1 - 24, 15.01.2020

Öz


Having the knowledge of a language is not limited to acquire the phonology, morphology and syntax of that language. Being a competent language user, children must acquire how to use the grammars of a language to communicate appropriately in a great variety of communicative situations. It means that language acquisition does not only include linguistic competence, at the same time, it includes pragmatic competence (Ya-ting, 2008). Thus pragmatic competence has an important place in the children’s language acquisition process. This paper is related to children’s pragmatic development which brings together linguistic pragmatics and child development. Turkish children’s language in play was analysed and the results were presented, focusing on the use of politeness phenomena. The results of the study are compared with the previous ones made in different languages. By contrast with the results of these studies, the present study found no significant differences in boys’ and girls’ use of mitigation. The girls and the boys often used an assertive, unmitigated style at the same level in their play, however, in other studies; girls appear to be politer than boys when they play. This article re-emphasized the need for language and gender research on children to be thoroughly contextualized and the importance of considering the socio-cultural context in research on children’s language. Indeed, the results are used to express the link between children's acquisition of pragmatic competence and crucial social, cultural and educational implications.


Kaynakça

  • Andersen, G. (1990). Focused attention in three dimensional spaces. Perception and Psychology, 47, 112-120.
  • Austin, A.M.B., Salehi, M. & Leffler, A. (1987). Gender and Developmental Differences in Children’s Conversations. Sex Roles, 16, 497-510.
  • Bates, E. (1976). Language and Contexts: The Acquisition of Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.
  • Bates, E. & Silvern, L. (1977). Social adjustment and politeness in pre-schoolers. Journal of Communication, 27, 104-111.
  • Ben-Ari, E. (1997). Body Projects in Japanese Childcare: Culture, Organization and Emotions in a Preschool. Curzon.
  • Bergvall, V. L., Bing, J. M., Freed & Alice F. (1996). Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice. London: Longman.
  • Berman, R. & Slobin, D. (Eds.). (1994). Relative Events in Narrative: A Cross-linguistic Developmental Study. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Blum-Kulka, S. & Snow, C. E. (Eds.). (2002). Talking to adults: The contribution of multiparty discourse to language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 355.
  • Bock, J. K. & Hornsby, M. E. (1977). How children ask and tell: a speech act analysis of children’s requests. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 13, 72-82.
  • Brown, P. & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Burdelski, M. (2010). Socializing politeness routines: Action, other-orientation, and embodiment in a Japanese preschool. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 1606–1621. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2009.11.007.
  • Cahill, S. (1986). Language practices and self-definition: the case of gender identity acquisition. The Sociological Quarterly, 27 (3), 295- 311.
  • Clancy, Patricia M. (1986). The acquisition of communicative style in Japanese. In Schieffelin, B.B., Ochs, E. (Eds.), Language Socialization across Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 213–250.
  • Cook, Haruko M. (1997). The role of the masu form in caregiver–child conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 28, 695–718.
  • Cook-Gumperz, J., Szymanski, M. (2001). Classroom ‘‘families’’: cooperating or competing—girls’ and boys’ interactional styles in a bilingual classroom. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 34 (1), 107–130.
  • Corsaro, William A. (1997). The Sociology of Childhood. Pine Forge, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • DeHart, G. B. (1996). Gender and mitigation in 4-year-olds’ pretend play talk with siblings. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 29 (1), 81-96.
  • Dimitracopoulou, I. (1990). Conversational Competence and Social Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ely, R. & Gleason, J. B. (1995). Socialization across contexts. In Fletcher, P. & MacWhinney, B. (Eds.), The Handbook of Child Language. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Evaldsson, A. C. & Corsaro, W. A. (1998). Play and games in the peer cultures of preschool and preadolescent children. Childhood, 5 (4), 377-402.
  • Ervin-Tripp, S. (1982). Ask and it shall be given you: children’s requests. In Byrnes, H. (Ed.), Georgetown Roundtable on Language and Linguistics. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
  • Ervin-Tripp, S., Guo,J., & Lampert, M.(1990). Politeness and persuasion in children’s control acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 14, 307-31.
  • Farris, C. (1991). The gender of child discourse: same-sex peer socialisation through language use in a Taiwanese pre-school. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 2, 198–224.
  • Farris, C. (2000). Cross-sex peer conflict and the discursive production of gender in a Chinese pre-school in Taiwan. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 539–568.
  • Garvey, C. (1974). Requests and responses in children’s speech. Journal of Child Language, 2, 41-63.
  • Gleason, J. B. (1987). Sex differences in parent- child interaction. In Philips, S. U.; Steele, S. and Tanz, C. (Eds.), Language, Gender and Sex in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Goodwin, M. H. (1980). Directive response speech sequences in girls’ and boys’ task activities. In: McConnell-Ginet, S., Borker, R., Furman, N. (Eds.), Women and Language in Literature and Society. New York: Praeger.
  • Goodwin, M. H. (1990). He-Said-She-Said: Talk as Social Organization among Black Children. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Goodwin, M. H. (1998). Games of stance: conflict and footing in hopscotch. In: Hoype, S., Adger, C.T. (Eds.), Kids’ Talk: Strategic Language Use in Later Childhood. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Hare, T. (1996). Try, try again: training in Noh drama. In: Rohlen, T., LeTendre, G. (Eds.), Teaching and learning in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 323–344.
  • Haslett, B. B. & Samter, W. (1997). Children Communicating: The First Five Years. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hendry, J. (1986). Becoming Japanese: The World of the Pre-school Child. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Holmes, J. (1995). Woman, Man and Politeness. London: Longman.
  • Horn, L. R. & Ward, G. L. (2006). The Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Hymes, D. H. (1972). On communicative competence. In Pride, J. B. & Holmes, J. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics. Baltimore: Penguin.
  • Kahraman, B. & Akkuş, D. (2007). The use of request expressions by Turkish learners of Japanese. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 3(1), 122-138.
  • Kanık, M. (2010). Interlanguage pragmatics in Turkish. Dil Dergisi, 150, 32-49.
  • Kılıçkaya, F. (2010). The pragmatic knowledge of Turkish EFL students in using certain request strategies. Online Submission, 9(1), 185-201.
  • Kyratzis, A. & Guo, J. (1996). Separate worlds for boys and girls? : views from us and Chinese mixed-sex friendship groups. In Slobin, D. I., Gerhardt, J.,
  • Kyratzis, A. & Guo, J. (Eds.), Social Interaction, Social Context and Language: Essays in Honour of Susan Ervin-Tripp. NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kyratzis, A. & Guo, J. (2001). Preschool girls’ and boys’ verbal strategies in the united states and china. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 34 (1), 45-74.
  • Ladegaard, H. J. (2004). Politeness in young children’s speech: context, peer group influence and pragmatic competence. Journal of Pragmatics, 36, 2003-2022.
  • Ladegaard, H. J. & Bleses, D. (2003). Gender differences in young children’s speech: the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence. International Applied Linguistics, 13 (2), 222-233.
  • Lloyd, B. & Duveen, G. (1993). The development of social representations. In Pratt, C. & Garton, A. F. (Eds.), Systems of Representation in Children: Development and Use. New York: Wiley.
  • Maratsos, M. P. (1973). Nonegocentric communication abilities in preschool children. Children Development, 44.
  • Martı, L. (2006). Indirectness and politeness in Turkish-German bilingual and Turkishmonolingual requests. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 1836-1869.
  • Miller, P., Danaher, D. & Forbes, D. (1986). Sex-related strategies for coping with interpersonal conflict in children aged five and seven. Developmental Psychology, 22, 543-548.
  • Nakamura, K. (2001). Gender and language in Japanese pre-school children. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 34(1), 15-43.
  • Ninio, A. & Snow, C. (1999). The development of pragmatics: learning to use language appropriately. Invited chapter, in T.K. Bhatia & W.C. Ritchie (Eds.), Handbook of Language Acquisition, 347-383. New Yok: Academic Press.
  • Nippold, M., Leonard, L. & Anastopoulos, A. (1982). Development in the use and understanding of polite forms in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing, 5.
  • Ochs, E. & Schieffelin, B. (1984). Language acquisition and socialization: three developmental stories and their implication. In Scweder, R. A. & Le Vine, R. (Eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self and Emotion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Preece, A. (1992). Collaborators and critics: the nature and effects of peer interaction on children’s conversational narratives. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 2, 277- 292.
  • Read, B. & Cherry, L. (1978). Preschool Children’s Productions of Directive Forms. Discourse Processes, 1, 233-245.
  • Peak, L. (1991). Learning to go to School in Japan: The Transition from Home to Preschool Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Sachs, L. (1987). Preschool boys’ and girls’ language use in pretend play. In Philips, S. U., Steele, S. & Tanz, C. (Eds.), Language, Gender and Sex in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schiefelbusch, R. L. & Pickar, J. (1984). The Acquisition of Communicative Competence. Baltimore: University Park Press.
  • Shatz, M. & Gelman, R. (1973). The development of communication skills: modifications in the speech of young children as a function of listener. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38(5).
  • Sheldon, A. (1990). Pickle fights: gendered talk in preschool disputes. Discourse Processes, 13, 5-13.
  • Sheldon, A. (1992). Conflict talk: sociolinguistic challenges to self-assertion and how young girls meet them. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 38, 95-117.
  • Sheldon, A. (1996). You can be the baby brother but you aren’t born yet: preschool girls’ negotiation for power and access in pretend play. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 29, 57-80.
  • Thorell, M. (1998). Politics and alignment in children’s play dialogue. Play arenas and participation. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Linköping.
  • Ya-ting, K. (2008). A study of children’s request reformulation in mother-child conversation. Master Thesis, National Chengchi University, Graduate Institute of Linguistics.
  • Zerey, Ö. G. (2014). Requests in Turkish-Speaking Pre-School Children: A Classroom Discourse Perspective. Turkish Studies - International Periodical for The Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 9(6), 1207-1223.

Türk Çocukların (4.3 – 5.7) Konuşmalarındaki Nezaket İfadeleri

Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 1, 1 - 24, 15.01.2020

Öz

Bir dilin bilgisine sahip olmak, o dilin ses-bilgisi, biçim-bilgisi ve sözdizimini edinmekle sınırlı değildir. Yetkin bir dil kullanıcısı olan çocuklar, bir dilin gramerini, çok çeşitli iletişimsel durumlarda, uygun şekilde iletişim kurmak için nasıl kullanacaklarını öğrenmelidirler. Bu, dil ediniminin yalnızca dilsel yeterliliği içermemesi, aynı zamanda pragmatik yeterliliği de içermesi anlamına gelir (Ya-ting, 2008). Dolayısıyla pragmatik yetkinlik, çocukların dil edinim sürecinde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Bu makale, “dilbilimsel pragmatik” ile “çocuk gelişimi”ni birlikte içeren “çocukların dil bilgisel pragmatik gelişimi” ile ilgilidir. Mevcut çalışmada, sonuçlar, Türk çocukların oyun esnasında kullandıkları dil analiz edilerek ve nezaket olgularının kullanımı göz önünde bulundurularak sunuldu. Çalışmanın sonuçları, daha önce farklı dillerde yapılmış olan çalışmalarla da karşılaştırıldı. Bu çalışmaların sonuçlarının aksine, mevcut çalışmada, erkek ve kız çocuklarının yumuşatma (mitigation) kullanımlarında anlamlı bir farklılık bulunamadı. Diğer çalışmalarda, genellikle,  oyun esnasında kızlar erkeklerden daha kibarken bu çalışmada, kızlar ve erkekler aynı seviyelerde iddialı ve sert bir stil kullandılar. Bu makale, çocuklar üzerine yapılan dil ve cinsiyet araştırmalarının kapsamlı bir şekilde bağlamsallaştırılmasının gerekliliğini ve çocuk-dili araştırmalarında sosyo-kültürel yapıyı göz önüne almanın önemini yeniden vurgulamaktadır. Nitekim, sonuçlar, çocukların pragmatik yeterlilik kazanımı ile önemli sosyal, kültürel ve eğitimsel etkiler arasındaki bağı ifade etmek için kullanılmıştır.


Kaynakça

  • Andersen, G. (1990). Focused attention in three dimensional spaces. Perception and Psychology, 47, 112-120.
  • Austin, A.M.B., Salehi, M. & Leffler, A. (1987). Gender and Developmental Differences in Children’s Conversations. Sex Roles, 16, 497-510.
  • Bates, E. (1976). Language and Contexts: The Acquisition of Pragmatics. New York: Academic Press.
  • Bates, E. & Silvern, L. (1977). Social adjustment and politeness in pre-schoolers. Journal of Communication, 27, 104-111.
  • Ben-Ari, E. (1997). Body Projects in Japanese Childcare: Culture, Organization and Emotions in a Preschool. Curzon.
  • Bergvall, V. L., Bing, J. M., Freed & Alice F. (1996). Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Practice. London: Longman.
  • Berman, R. & Slobin, D. (Eds.). (1994). Relative Events in Narrative: A Cross-linguistic Developmental Study. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Blum-Kulka, S. & Snow, C. E. (Eds.). (2002). Talking to adults: The contribution of multiparty discourse to language acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 355.
  • Bock, J. K. & Hornsby, M. E. (1977). How children ask and tell: a speech act analysis of children’s requests. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development, 13, 72-82.
  • Brown, P. & Levinson, S. C. (1987). Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Burdelski, M. (2010). Socializing politeness routines: Action, other-orientation, and embodiment in a Japanese preschool. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 1606–1621. doi:10.1016/j.pragma.2009.11.007.
  • Cahill, S. (1986). Language practices and self-definition: the case of gender identity acquisition. The Sociological Quarterly, 27 (3), 295- 311.
  • Clancy, Patricia M. (1986). The acquisition of communicative style in Japanese. In Schieffelin, B.B., Ochs, E. (Eds.), Language Socialization across Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 213–250.
  • Cook, Haruko M. (1997). The role of the masu form in caregiver–child conversation. Journal of Pragmatics, 28, 695–718.
  • Cook-Gumperz, J., Szymanski, M. (2001). Classroom ‘‘families’’: cooperating or competing—girls’ and boys’ interactional styles in a bilingual classroom. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 34 (1), 107–130.
  • Corsaro, William A. (1997). The Sociology of Childhood. Pine Forge, Thousand Oaks, CA.
  • DeHart, G. B. (1996). Gender and mitigation in 4-year-olds’ pretend play talk with siblings. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 29 (1), 81-96.
  • Dimitracopoulou, I. (1990). Conversational Competence and Social Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Ely, R. & Gleason, J. B. (1995). Socialization across contexts. In Fletcher, P. & MacWhinney, B. (Eds.), The Handbook of Child Language. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Evaldsson, A. C. & Corsaro, W. A. (1998). Play and games in the peer cultures of preschool and preadolescent children. Childhood, 5 (4), 377-402.
  • Ervin-Tripp, S. (1982). Ask and it shall be given you: children’s requests. In Byrnes, H. (Ed.), Georgetown Roundtable on Language and Linguistics. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.
  • Ervin-Tripp, S., Guo,J., & Lampert, M.(1990). Politeness and persuasion in children’s control acts. Journal of Pragmatics, 14, 307-31.
  • Farris, C. (1991). The gender of child discourse: same-sex peer socialisation through language use in a Taiwanese pre-school. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 2, 198–224.
  • Farris, C. (2000). Cross-sex peer conflict and the discursive production of gender in a Chinese pre-school in Taiwan. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 539–568.
  • Garvey, C. (1974). Requests and responses in children’s speech. Journal of Child Language, 2, 41-63.
  • Gleason, J. B. (1987). Sex differences in parent- child interaction. In Philips, S. U.; Steele, S. and Tanz, C. (Eds.), Language, Gender and Sex in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Goffman, E. (1981). Forms of Talk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Goodwin, M. H. (1980). Directive response speech sequences in girls’ and boys’ task activities. In: McConnell-Ginet, S., Borker, R., Furman, N. (Eds.), Women and Language in Literature and Society. New York: Praeger.
  • Goodwin, M. H. (1990). He-Said-She-Said: Talk as Social Organization among Black Children. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Goodwin, M. H. (1998). Games of stance: conflict and footing in hopscotch. In: Hoype, S., Adger, C.T. (Eds.), Kids’ Talk: Strategic Language Use in Later Childhood. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Hare, T. (1996). Try, try again: training in Noh drama. In: Rohlen, T., LeTendre, G. (Eds.), Teaching and learning in Japan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 323–344.
  • Haslett, B. B. & Samter, W. (1997). Children Communicating: The First Five Years. London: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hendry, J. (1986). Becoming Japanese: The World of the Pre-school Child. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Holmes, J. (1995). Woman, Man and Politeness. London: Longman.
  • Horn, L. R. & Ward, G. L. (2006). The Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Hymes, D. H. (1972). On communicative competence. In Pride, J. B. & Holmes, J. (Eds.), Sociolinguistics. Baltimore: Penguin.
  • Kahraman, B. & Akkuş, D. (2007). The use of request expressions by Turkish learners of Japanese. Journal of Theory and Practice in Education, 3(1), 122-138.
  • Kanık, M. (2010). Interlanguage pragmatics in Turkish. Dil Dergisi, 150, 32-49.
  • Kılıçkaya, F. (2010). The pragmatic knowledge of Turkish EFL students in using certain request strategies. Online Submission, 9(1), 185-201.
  • Kyratzis, A. & Guo, J. (1996). Separate worlds for boys and girls? : views from us and Chinese mixed-sex friendship groups. In Slobin, D. I., Gerhardt, J.,
  • Kyratzis, A. & Guo, J. (Eds.), Social Interaction, Social Context and Language: Essays in Honour of Susan Ervin-Tripp. NJ.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Kyratzis, A. & Guo, J. (2001). Preschool girls’ and boys’ verbal strategies in the united states and china. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 34 (1), 45-74.
  • Ladegaard, H. J. (2004). Politeness in young children’s speech: context, peer group influence and pragmatic competence. Journal of Pragmatics, 36, 2003-2022.
  • Ladegaard, H. J. & Bleses, D. (2003). Gender differences in young children’s speech: the acquisition of sociolinguistic competence. International Applied Linguistics, 13 (2), 222-233.
  • Lloyd, B. & Duveen, G. (1993). The development of social representations. In Pratt, C. & Garton, A. F. (Eds.), Systems of Representation in Children: Development and Use. New York: Wiley.
  • Maratsos, M. P. (1973). Nonegocentric communication abilities in preschool children. Children Development, 44.
  • Martı, L. (2006). Indirectness and politeness in Turkish-German bilingual and Turkishmonolingual requests. Journal of Pragmatics, 38, 1836-1869.
  • Miller, P., Danaher, D. & Forbes, D. (1986). Sex-related strategies for coping with interpersonal conflict in children aged five and seven. Developmental Psychology, 22, 543-548.
  • Nakamura, K. (2001). Gender and language in Japanese pre-school children. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 34(1), 15-43.
  • Ninio, A. & Snow, C. (1999). The development of pragmatics: learning to use language appropriately. Invited chapter, in T.K. Bhatia & W.C. Ritchie (Eds.), Handbook of Language Acquisition, 347-383. New Yok: Academic Press.
  • Nippold, M., Leonard, L. & Anastopoulos, A. (1982). Development in the use and understanding of polite forms in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing, 5.
  • Ochs, E. & Schieffelin, B. (1984). Language acquisition and socialization: three developmental stories and their implication. In Scweder, R. A. & Le Vine, R. (Eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self and Emotion, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Preece, A. (1992). Collaborators and critics: the nature and effects of peer interaction on children’s conversational narratives. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 2, 277- 292.
  • Read, B. & Cherry, L. (1978). Preschool Children’s Productions of Directive Forms. Discourse Processes, 1, 233-245.
  • Peak, L. (1991). Learning to go to School in Japan: The Transition from Home to Preschool Life. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Sachs, L. (1987). Preschool boys’ and girls’ language use in pretend play. In Philips, S. U., Steele, S. & Tanz, C. (Eds.), Language, Gender and Sex in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schiefelbusch, R. L. & Pickar, J. (1984). The Acquisition of Communicative Competence. Baltimore: University Park Press.
  • Shatz, M. & Gelman, R. (1973). The development of communication skills: modifications in the speech of young children as a function of listener. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38(5).
  • Sheldon, A. (1990). Pickle fights: gendered talk in preschool disputes. Discourse Processes, 13, 5-13.
  • Sheldon, A. (1992). Conflict talk: sociolinguistic challenges to self-assertion and how young girls meet them. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 38, 95-117.
  • Sheldon, A. (1996). You can be the baby brother but you aren’t born yet: preschool girls’ negotiation for power and access in pretend play. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 29, 57-80.
  • Thorell, M. (1998). Politics and alignment in children’s play dialogue. Play arenas and participation. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Linköping.
  • Ya-ting, K. (2008). A study of children’s request reformulation in mother-child conversation. Master Thesis, National Chengchi University, Graduate Institute of Linguistics.
  • Zerey, Ö. G. (2014). Requests in Turkish-Speaking Pre-School Children: A Classroom Discourse Perspective. Turkish Studies - International Periodical for The Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 9(6), 1207-1223.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Dil ve Dil Bilim
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Gamze ALMACIOĞLU (Sorumlu Yazar)
Gaziantep University
0000-0001-7739-1933
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 15 Ocak 2020
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

APA Almacıoğlu, G. (2020). Politeness in Young (Between 4.3 - 5.7) Children's Speech in Turkish . Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi , 17 (1) , 1-24 . Retrieved from http://ded.mersindilbilim.info/tr/pub/issue/62995/638313