Araştırma Makalesi
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Measure Constructions of Turkish: Syntax and Semantics

Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 73 - 96, 28.04.2022

Öz

Natural language allows us to attribute properties to entities, some of which are not possessed wholly but to a certain extent, the most obvious example of which are expressions of measure that relate entities to a certain degree along a given dimension. This paper addresses the syntactic constituency and ensuing interpretation of measure expressions of Turkish. Standard measure phrases are demonstrated to obtain when a measure word takes a numeral for its degree argument, which is then applied to a number-neutral NP, yielding a quantized measured noun. A similar account is also provided for measure expressions built on container and collective nouns, which minimally differ from standard measures in involving derived measures. The analysis is further extended to classifiers which express the measure of cardinality. Overall, the proposal defended in this paper is shown to involve minimal machinery to derive the intended reading of measure expressions.

Kaynakça

  • Borer, H. (2005). Structuring sense: In name only (Vol. I). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Brems, L. (2003). Measure Noun constructions: An instance of semantically-driven grammaticalization. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 8(2), 283-312.
  • Carlson, G. N. (1977). Reference to kinds in English. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • Cheng, L. L.-S., & Sybesma, R. (1999). Bare and not so bare nouns and the structure of NP. Linguistic Inquiry, 30(4), 509-542.
  • Chierchia, G. (1998a). Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of ‘semantic parameter'. In S. Rothstein (Ed.), Events and grammar (pp. 53-103). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
  • Chierchia, G. (1998b). Reference to kinds across languages. Natural Language Semantics, 6, 339-405.
  • Chierchia, G. (2010). Mass nouns, vagueness and semantic variation. Synthese, 174, 99-149.
  • Diesing, M. (1992). Indefinites. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Dobrovie-Sorin, C. (1997). Types of predicates and the representation of existential readings. In A. Lawson (Ed.), Proceedings of SALT VII (pp. 117-134). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Filip, H., & Sutton, P. R. (2017). Singular count NPs in measure constructions. Proceedings of SALT, 27, 340-357.
  • Gerstner-Link, C., & Krifka, M. (1993). Genericity. In J. Jacobs, A. von Stechow, W. Sternefeld, & T. Vennemann (Eds.), Handbuch der syntax (pp. 966-978). Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.
  • Grosu, A., & Landman, F. (1988). Strange relatives of the third kind. Natural Language Semantics, 6, 125-170. doi:10.1023/A:1008268401837
  • Heim, I., & Kratzer, A. (1998). Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Hsieh, M.-L. (2008). The internal structure of noun phrases in Chinese. Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
  • Hsu, Y.-Y. (2015). A unified account to measure words in Mandarin. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 21(1).
  • Kennedy, C. (1999). Projecting the adjective: The syntax and semantics of gradability and comparison. New York, NY: Garland.
  • Krantz, D. H., Luce, R. D., Suppes, P., & Tversky, A. (1971). Foundations of measurement: Additive and polynomial representations. London, UK: Academic Press.
  • Krifka, M. (1995). Common nouns: A contrastive analysis of English and Chinese. In G. N. Carlson, & F. J. Pelletier (Eds.), The generic book (pp. 398-411). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
  • Landman, F. (2004). Indefinites and the type of sets. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Langacker, R. (1991). Foundations of cognitive grammar. Volume II: Descriptive application. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • McEnery, T., & Xiao, R. (2007). Quantifying constructions in English and Chinese: A corpus based contrastive study. Paper presented at the proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2007, 28–30 July 2007, Birmingham University. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/publications/CL2007/paper/19_Paper.pdf
  • Nomoto, H. (2013). Number in classifier languages. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Rett, J. (2014). The polysemy of measurement. Lingua, 143, 242-266. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2014.02.001
  • Rothstein, S. (2009). Individuating and measure readings of classifier constructions: Evidence from Modern Hebrew. Brill Annual of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics, 1, 106-145.
  • Rothstein, S. (2011). Counting, measuring, and the semantics of classifiers. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication, 6, 1-42.
  • Sassoon, G. W. (2010). Measurement theory in linguistics. Synthese, 174, 151-180. doi:10.1007/s11229-009-9687-5
  • Schwarzschild, R. (2006). The role of dimensions in the syntax of noun phrases. Syntax, 9(1), 67-110.
  • Scontras, G. C. (2014). The semantics of measurement. (Doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
  • Tang, C.-C. J. (2005). Nouns or classifiers: A non-movement analysis of classifiers in Chinese. Language and Linguistics, 6.3, 431-472.
  • Turgay, T. (2020a). Classifier Constructions of Turkish. (Doctoral dissertation) Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Turgay, T. (2020b). Semantics of Turkish bare nouns and the function of classifiers. Turkic Languages, 24(1), 30-77.
  • Wilkinson, K. J. (1991). Studies in the semantics of generic noun phrases. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • Zhang, N. N. (2009). Syntactic properties of numeral classifiers in Mandarin Chinese. Proceedings of the 2009 summer conference of the international society for Chomskyan studies (pp. 93-108). Seoul, South Korea: The International Society for Chomskyan Studies. Retrieved December 24, 2015, from http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/000854/current.pdf?_s=ooZhNQXA7rWO3NJN
  • Zhang, N. N. (2011). The constituency of classifier constructions in Mandarin chinese. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics, 9(1), 1-49.

Türkçe Ölçme İfadelerinin Sözdizimsel ve Anlambilimsel Yapısı

Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 2, 73 - 96, 28.04.2022

Öz

İnsan dili, bütünsel özelliklerin yanı sıra belirli dereceye kadar sahip olunan özellikleri de varlıklara atfetmemize izin vermektedir. Bunu en belirgin örneği, varlıkları bir boyut üzerinde belirli bir dereceyle ilişkilendirmemizi sağlayan ölçme ifadeleridir. Bu çalışmada Türkçe ölçme ifadelerinin sözdizimsel yapısı ile bu yapının sonucu ortaya çıkan anlambilimsel yorum ele alınmaktadır. Standart ölçme ifadelerinin, bir ölçme sözcüğüne derece üyesi olarak bir sayısal öbek atamak suretiyle oluşturulup, söz konusu ada yüklemleme ya da niteleme yoluyla uygulanması süreci olduğu ve adın bu şekilde nicellendiği gösterilmektedir. Aynı yöntem, barındırma adları ve topluluk adlarına da uygulanmakta, bunların standart ölçme yapılarından tek farkının ise türetilmiş ölçme sözcükleri barındırmak olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Geliştirilen bu yaklaşım, sınıflayıcı yapılarını da kapsayacak şekilde genişletilmekte ve bunların sayı anlatan ölçme yapıları olduğu öne sürülmektedir. Bütünsel olarak bakıldığında, bu yaklaşımın ölme ifadelerinin yapı ve yorumunu görece basit bir yöntemle açıklayabildiği gösterilmektedir.

Kaynakça

  • Borer, H. (2005). Structuring sense: In name only (Vol. I). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  • Brems, L. (2003). Measure Noun constructions: An instance of semantically-driven grammaticalization. International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, 8(2), 283-312.
  • Carlson, G. N. (1977). Reference to kinds in English. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • Cheng, L. L.-S., & Sybesma, R. (1999). Bare and not so bare nouns and the structure of NP. Linguistic Inquiry, 30(4), 509-542.
  • Chierchia, G. (1998a). Plurality of mass nouns and the notion of ‘semantic parameter'. In S. Rothstein (Ed.), Events and grammar (pp. 53-103). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer.
  • Chierchia, G. (1998b). Reference to kinds across languages. Natural Language Semantics, 6, 339-405.
  • Chierchia, G. (2010). Mass nouns, vagueness and semantic variation. Synthese, 174, 99-149.
  • Diesing, M. (1992). Indefinites. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Dobrovie-Sorin, C. (1997). Types of predicates and the representation of existential readings. In A. Lawson (Ed.), Proceedings of SALT VII (pp. 117-134). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Filip, H., & Sutton, P. R. (2017). Singular count NPs in measure constructions. Proceedings of SALT, 27, 340-357.
  • Gerstner-Link, C., & Krifka, M. (1993). Genericity. In J. Jacobs, A. von Stechow, W. Sternefeld, & T. Vennemann (Eds.), Handbuch der syntax (pp. 966-978). Berlin, Germany: de Gruyter.
  • Grosu, A., & Landman, F. (1988). Strange relatives of the third kind. Natural Language Semantics, 6, 125-170. doi:10.1023/A:1008268401837
  • Heim, I., & Kratzer, A. (1998). Semantics in generative grammar. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Hsieh, M.-L. (2008). The internal structure of noun phrases in Chinese. Taipei, Taiwan: Crane.
  • Hsu, Y.-Y. (2015). A unified account to measure words in Mandarin. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics, 21(1).
  • Kennedy, C. (1999). Projecting the adjective: The syntax and semantics of gradability and comparison. New York, NY: Garland.
  • Krantz, D. H., Luce, R. D., Suppes, P., & Tversky, A. (1971). Foundations of measurement: Additive and polynomial representations. London, UK: Academic Press.
  • Krifka, M. (1995). Common nouns: A contrastive analysis of English and Chinese. In G. N. Carlson, & F. J. Pelletier (Eds.), The generic book (pp. 398-411). Chicago, IL: Chicago University Press.
  • Landman, F. (2004). Indefinites and the type of sets. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
  • Langacker, R. (1991). Foundations of cognitive grammar. Volume II: Descriptive application. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
  • McEnery, T., & Xiao, R. (2007). Quantifying constructions in English and Chinese: A corpus based contrastive study. Paper presented at the proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2007, 28–30 July 2007, Birmingham University. Retrieved October 2, 2021, from http://ucrel.lancs.ac.uk/publications/CL2007/paper/19_Paper.pdf
  • Nomoto, H. (2013). Number in classifier languages. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.
  • Rett, J. (2014). The polysemy of measurement. Lingua, 143, 242-266. doi:10.1016/j.lingua.2014.02.001
  • Rothstein, S. (2009). Individuating and measure readings of classifier constructions: Evidence from Modern Hebrew. Brill Annual of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics, 1, 106-145.
  • Rothstein, S. (2011). Counting, measuring, and the semantics of classifiers. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication, 6, 1-42.
  • Sassoon, G. W. (2010). Measurement theory in linguistics. Synthese, 174, 151-180. doi:10.1007/s11229-009-9687-5
  • Schwarzschild, R. (2006). The role of dimensions in the syntax of noun phrases. Syntax, 9(1), 67-110.
  • Scontras, G. C. (2014). The semantics of measurement. (Doctoral dissertation). Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
  • Tang, C.-C. J. (2005). Nouns or classifiers: A non-movement analysis of classifiers in Chinese. Language and Linguistics, 6.3, 431-472.
  • Turgay, T. (2020a). Classifier Constructions of Turkish. (Doctoral dissertation) Boğaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Turgay, T. (2020b). Semantics of Turkish bare nouns and the function of classifiers. Turkic Languages, 24(1), 30-77.
  • Wilkinson, K. J. (1991). Studies in the semantics of generic noun phrases. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
  • Zhang, N. N. (2009). Syntactic properties of numeral classifiers in Mandarin Chinese. Proceedings of the 2009 summer conference of the international society for Chomskyan studies (pp. 93-108). Seoul, South Korea: The International Society for Chomskyan Studies. Retrieved December 24, 2015, from http://ling.auf.net/lingbuzz/000854/current.pdf?_s=ooZhNQXA7rWO3NJN
  • Zhang, N. N. (2011). The constituency of classifier constructions in Mandarin chinese. Taiwan Journal of Linguistics, 9(1), 1-49.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Dil ve Dil Bilim
Bölüm Araştırma Makalesi
Yazarlar

Tacettin TURGAY> (Sorumlu Yazar)
KIRKLARELİ ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-2587-6928
Türkiye

Yayımlanma Tarihi 28 Nisan 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2020, Cilt 17, Sayı 2

Kaynak Göster

APA Turgay, T. (2022). Measure Constructions of Turkish: Syntax and Semantics . Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi , 17 (2) , 73-96 . Retrieved from http://ded.mersindilbilim.info/tr/pub/issue/69629/1016410